Chattanooga Engineers Club
Meeting Notices - 1996


Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr

May | Jun | Jul | Aug

Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

January 8, 1996

Jan Evans spoke about his work and recent trip to India. Jan was the team leader on a United Nations development team working on the "Microprocessor Application Engineering Programme". The team visited most of the large cities in India. Some interesting facts: Bangalore is second to the United States is software development, and In New Delhi 27,000 people show up each day to apply for their drivers license!

January 22, 1996

Stephen G. Stout, executive Director, McMinn County Economic Development Authority, talked about the economic development in Athens/Etowah and McMinn county. The authority is a non-profit public/private organization with a board of 28 members. They concentrate on the industrial sector with a special concern for the expansion of existing companies. 75% of all new jobs come from this type expansion. Expansion is globally competitive with most large industries. The authority's philosophy is to buy land and secure an industry then leverage this to obtain state and federal monies for the infrastructure. Two of their newest industries are "Creative Fabrication" making tubular steel containers and "Nippondenso" (200 jobs) making oxygen sensors for catalytic convertors.

January 29, 1996

Lori Gary, Vice President of the Cleveland/Bradley County Economic Development Council, spoke on the economic development in Cleveland and Bradley County. This area has 165 manufacturing companies with a work force of over 11,00. 80% of new jobs come from the expansion of existing companies. The council is therefore very aggressive in influencing plant expansion in Bradley county (plant expansion is globally competitive). The same incentives ("Business Programs") are extended to plant expansion as well as new industries. A new industrial site, "Hiwassee River Industrial Park, is beginning to open up in the northern park of Bradley county along the "Hiwassee River. Lori's philosophy is "Get good quality jobs into the area and the people will follow. Bradley county is running a very low 4.6% unemployment, so they must be doing it right.

February 5, 1996

Dr. Peter G. Montague, Technical Director of ALCO Chemical spoke on the challenges of working with groups of globally separated scientists. He spoke about using Lotus "Notes" to coordinate projects around the world. ALCO and it's parent company have over 16,000 users located in 53 countries, with over 350 servers and close to 3,000 projects (databases). "Notes" allows for true "Open Management" (nothing hidden) of these projects. Dr. Montague also demonstrated how they use personal computers to aid visitors to their booths at trade shows: an interactive continuous running demo about ALCO that can be given out on a set of 4 disks instead of paper handouts.

February 12, 1996

Debbie Conger of MicroSoft spoke about MicroSoft's new operating systems, Windows 95 and Windows NT. She also demonstrated MicroSoft's interface to the INTERNET. The new operating systems are based on 32 bit code as opposed to the older Windows 3.1 which is based on 16 bit code. Windows 95 will detect your hardware when it boots up, this makes configuring the operating system much easier. Both operating systems have peer-to-peer networking built into them.

February 19, 1996

John V. Boyette, CEO & Chairman of the Board of Piedmont Olsen Hensley (POH), kicked off "Engineer's Week". John spoke about "Meeting the Challenges of the Future" in an engineering company. Engineers do not provide a "Final Product" only a "Means to an End." Some of the problems facing a CEO of an engineering company are: ability to recruit and retain engineers, the capital to stay current with technology, willingness to change, and understanding and meeting the clients expectations. POH is in the middle of a geographic expansion with its merger with a Netherlands based company. It takes a "critical mass of engineering" to compete in the global engineering marketplace. Gordon Hixson, M.D. was presented this year's "Inventor of the Year". He was recognized for his development of magnification platforms for mammography. Gordon showed his invention to the club and spoke briefly about its value in mammography. Pete Rolston was presented this year's "People to People Award". This award recognizes Pete's community service. Pete is very active with his church (First Christian Church), serves on board and as a volunteer of CONTACT of Chattanooga, works on the "Appalachian Projects" to insulate low income families in the Appalachia mountains, and gives time to maintain the "Appalachian Trail".

February 26, 1996

John Cate, Salesman with ALCO Chemical spoke on "ALCO products and Industrial Water Treatment Applications". He focused on the use of polymers in industrial water treatment and consumer laundry applications. ALCO moved their manufacturing to Chattanooga in 1962, and presently has 150 employees.

March 4, 1996

Mike Harrison of "Chattanooga Online" spoke about the perspective of Internet. Mike's organization has 6 full time employees, 100 phone lines, 22 computers, and over 50 modems all working to provide their users access to the Internet. Mike considers himself as an "Internet evangelist" having been the first site to provide access starting in October 1994. The search engine that Mike likes is http:/" which he demonstrated at the meeting. The search engine uses a "spider", an intelligent software program, to search the web. The Internet provides the user with shared information", millions of documents spread out across the world. It also provides "free exchange of ideas", other interested people willing to provide the user with free information on about any subject. The Internet electronic mail also offers users free mail to any other user world wide.

March 11, 1996

Hal Dickey, Plant Operations Manager of Chattanooga Cable TV, spoke on the "Future of the Cable TV Industry". The evolution of the cable TV has taken it from a coaxial type line with many amplifiers is series to a hybrid fiber optic/coaxial type line with no more than 5 cascading amplifiers. The future holds a cable modem that will allow cable TV as well as PC communications and possible competitive access to your long distance phone carrier. Chattanooga Cable does not have any cable modems, but their parent company "Comcast Cable" is testing such in Baltimore. 65% of the homes in our area currently subscribe to Chattanooga Cable TV. They have over 22,000 miles of plant with over 600 miles of sheath fiber optics

March 18, 1996

Steve Romine, Data Communications Specialist with Bell South's Advanced Networking Division (Huntsville, AL), spoke about "ISDN Applications in Business and at Home". ISDN is an acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network. The common ISDN line to residential customers is a 2B+D (2 binary lines plus 1 digital control line) which can carry data at 144 Kilo Bytes per second, or 5 times faster than today's fastest computer modem. An ISDN line can function in many configurations - an interesting one discussed was where a school system in Alabama is using one "B" line for slow scan surveillance, the other "B" line for computer networking, and the "D" line for alarm monitoring. The basic rate for a home connection is about $75 for installation and $30 / month (you will also have to purchase a terminal adaptor for about $300-$700). ISDN will play a major role in networking computers to the Internet.

March 25, 1996

Kenneth Stewart, Sr. Account Executive with AT&T's Business Communications Services, spoke about the "Future of Long Distance Communications". The Telecommunications Act of 1996 (Feb.) will drastically change the whole communications industry. The act is the first to effect the local access in over 100 years. AT&T philosophy is "Bundle and Bond" with the customer. They intend to bundle: local phone service, Internet access, entertainment, and national wireless communications. AT&T's has split up into to three companies associated with: computers, communications, and manufacturing to better compete in the global communications market. The split up will be final 1/1/97.

April 1, 1996

Maurice S. Bandy, P.E., Vice-President, Piedmont Olsen Hensley, spoke on his experience with stopping a major leak at DIX Dam - 25 miles upstream from Frankfort, KY. DIX Dam, built in 1923-25, is a rock filled dam 275 foot high and 1010 ft long (largest of its kind when built). The construction was via three separate wood trestles (buried inside the dam), a steam locomotive, and side dump rail cars. Since construction the dam has settled 6 ft in the vertical and 5 ft in the horizontal (down stream) direction. Due to this movement the dam was leaking at the rate of several hundred cubic feet per second. The solution was to install the largest piece of 1/16 inch thick rubber (130 ft. x 35 ft. Hypolan - seamless and belted) membrane underwater over the portion causing the leak. The reservoir could not be drained since three municipalities depended on it for their water supply. POH teamed with Oceanenearing and a team of underwater divers to successfully seal the leak.

April 8, 1996

Damon R. Riggs, P.E. Project Manager Piedmont Olsen Hensley (POH), spoke on "The Engineer as Communicator: POH Experience with Catoosa County Landfill". In 1991 Catoosa's landfill was a burden on the county with about 2 years capacity remaining, and stiff environmental regulation needing met. A narrow window in time opened allowing for vertical expansion of the landfill. The county was able to take advantage of this window, meet the new regulations, and in 1994 it was able to bid out the excess capacity. Damon touched on the engineers role in interfacing the following: Client, Public, Advisory Committee, State Regulators, and Colleagues.

April 14, 1996

Edward Wetzel, Executive Vice-President of Piedmont Olsen Hensley, spoke on the recent trends in privatization of water supply and wastewater facilities. He told of reasons why there is a trend for the public to take over such utilities (especially in Florida where developers have created many small utilities), while at the same time there is a trend privatize the utilities (shed public officials burden of running the utilities). Ed discussed five typical valuation methodologies and their use in making such decisions. He also spoke of a newer trend to "out source" parts of a utility's operation.

April 22, 1996

Congressman Zach Wamp spoke to our largest crowd this year, over 80 members were present, on last year's work of the 104th Congress. Zack has been instrumental in getting a proposal passed in the House to remove from the federal budget a $30 billion transportation trust fund. It is Zack's feeling, and a very large number of representatives, that this fund needs to be used for the intent in which the user fees and taxes were collected, and therefore has no business being in the federal budget. On the local side, a new Water Resources Act may give the Chattanooga area 4 grants of $500 thousand to stabilization the erosion of the banks of the Tennessee River. Zack also reported on the progress toward removing over 100 house from the flood plane of South Chickamauga Creek in E. Ridge. Many other topics were also mentioned.

April 29, 1996

The club visited the "Challenger Center" (on UTC's Campus) and watched a class going through a simulated space shuttle mission. The center's goal is to stimulate interest in math, science, and engineering for fifth graders. We saw a class from Ooltewah performing a mission - they all were taking it very seriously. One part of the mission was ground based and the other space station based. Teamwork was essential since a mistake by any member could end the mission. The club also got a chance to experience the flight simulator (3/4 scale model), where motion was simulated via very a very large woofer speaker system rather than via hydraulic jacks.

May 6, 1996

Blake Strickland, Sr. Vice President Tennessee Valley Federal Credit Union, spoke on "The $318 Billion Credit Union Industry, Past, Present, and Future". Credit unions started with the "Rockdale Society of Equitable Pioneers" in France in 1844. The United States became involved with the Federal Credit Union Act of 1934. The Tennessee Valley Federal Credit Union was born in 1936, and is currently the fourth largest in Tennessee with over 76,000 members. Blake pointed out the future with "An ATM transaction cost between 7 & 10 cents while a teller transaction cost about $1.00" and "In the year 2013 the Society Security pay out will match the money they receive." He also demonstrated their "On Line 24" a personal computer interface to your accounts.

May 13, 1996

Doug Jacobs, filling in for an absent speaker, spoke on "Custom Image Manufacturing". "Custom Image Manufacturing" the manufacturing process at Olan Mills photography. Just 28 years ago the photography business was mostly black and white, and today it is almost exclusively color. Doug told about the various engineering disciplines involved in this process - mechanical, industrial, electrical, and computer science. Much of the printing process at Olan Mills is computer driven via a Fox Pro (personal computer) data base. Doug also showed some of the company's key developments - a 3:1 zoom lens, video images instead of proofs, embedded controllers, etc. Doug sees digital imaging and digital retouching as the future trend.

May 20, 1996

Katy Conkin, President and CEO of the Better Business Bureau, Inc., spoke on "Chattanooga's Better Business Bureau (BBB) is of Service to You". The BBB began in Chattanooga as project of the Jaycees in 1960 (only one in US to evolve from a club's project). Today it has over 2500 members in 21 counties located in SE TN & NW GA. The four major functions of the BBB are: 1. inquiry reporting (using voice response and the company's phone number your are inquiring about - ph# 266-1144); 2. dispute resolution - mediators and arbitrators (more flexible and less expensive than the court system); 3. advertising review; and 4. charitable solution review. A disturbing note was that the Chattanooga area ranked fifth nationally in the telemarketing scam business.

June 3, 1996

Jim Henry, P.E., Ph.D. of UTC's College of Engineering and Computer Science spoke on the "Baltic Sea Chemical Munitions Disposal". Jim attended a NATO conference January 5, 1995 in Kaliningrad, Russia to discuss the chemical weapons dumped into the Baltic Sea after World War I. 300,000 tons of weapons including Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Tabu, Adamsite, and others were simply sunk on barges in a number of 3,000 foot deep trenches in the sea. Between 50% and 90% of the chemicals will be neutralized via hydrolysis with the sea water, the remaining chemicals are still a concern. Yet, at the present time no solution has been decided upon about solving the problem of future contamination of the sea due to leaking containers.

June 10 1996

Charles Knight, P.E., Ph.D. of UTC's College of Engineering and Computer Science spoke about UTC's "Interactive Mechanical Engineering Laboratory". Little has been done about engineering labs in our universities since WWII. The lab, a new course at UTC and required of all M.E. students, is a 2 hour a week class - 1 hour lecture and 3 hours lab. The lab is structured around computer acquisition and the use of "LabView" software. "Software is the instrument" said Mr. Knight while demonstrating the use of "Virtual Instruments" on a personal computer. Temperature, strain, air flow, and pressure were measured and displayed on the screen, with the computer allowed for variable scales, positioning, and charting of each analog reading.

June 17 1996

Mr. Charles Saunders, Vice Presidents of Government Operations, ICI Americas, spoke about the plans for commercial and industrial development of the old Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant site. This site is the largest in the world, and one of only 16 in the US for making TNT. The basic plan is for the army to work with the community in developing the acreage around the plant while maintaining a readiness (future war) for TNT production. The area is divided into 3 section and available for long term lease. The western section is ready now for small industrial sites with hopes that a company producing DNT would lease the TNT production plant. The middle section (2,000 acres) is reserved as a large industrial site, such as a pharmaceutical plant (the site has great access to water, rail, interstate, and sewage treatment), while keeping the air pollution to a minimum. The eastern site is for research and development companies. Charles pointed out that Chattanooga is an excellent! site for the distribution of consumer goods.

June 24 1996

Brenda McCellan and Dennis Rogers spoke about UTC's senior engineering projects. Brenda, with assistance from Don Eberhart, talked about the limitations in sports competition of physically and mentally handicapped persons. The senior class project she participated in designed and constructed an "Adaptec Rowing" boat that could be used in competition by a paraplegic (the boat was on view). Senior projects are based on a three team approach: administrative, technical design, and production teams. Dennis talked about a project to demonstrate to fourth through sixth graders how the Orange Grove Recycling Center works. The project will allow visiting students to have hands on experience, as well as timed competition in the recycling process.

July 1, 1996

Mr. Wade Bailey, Regional Representative for Ditch Witch of Georgia, and Ray Eslinger, local underground utility contractor, spoke on long range fluid assisted directional boring. On display (in front of the hotel) was a Ditch Witch J3510 Directional Boring System. This new technology (unlike trenching) allows utilities to bore under existing roads, driveways, and landscape, without disturbing the top surface. Also on display was the beacon transmitter which is located in behind the bit. This beacon signals a locator on top of the ground the bits location, depth, pitch, temperature, and rotational position. Samples of High Density Polyethylene conduit that is pulled back into the hole after drilling were also on display.

July 8, 1996

Tyler Buckner and Frank Vanzant, student and math teacher at Tullahoma High School, spoke about the values of being in the Science Fair. Tyler's exhibit, "Moire Fringes", was on display. Tyler's philosophy is "Hard work is necessary if you are doing anything that makes a difference." Frank Vanzant, 1 of 120 nationally recognized teachers and involved in at least 15 of our Science Fairs, described the fair like a rock thrown into calm water making ripples - "a teacher's influence on tomorrow's engineers, doctors, and scientist". Frank also said "the Chattanooga Engineers Club is the Heart of the Fair." Joe Zimmerman, Vice President of manufacturing at Signal Mountain Cement (SMC) spoke on "Scrap Tires - Yesterday's Waste, Today's Commodity". He showed two videos on how used tires including steel belted tires are used in making cement. This process has been in use at SMC since April 3, 1995. The BTU content of a tire is greater than an equal volume of coal. The tires enhance the heating of their long rotating kilns, and also contribute iron which is necessary for making cement. SMC is currently burning three thousand tires per day, and seeing an energy savings of 12 - 15%. All of this has been done with the Air Pollution Control Bureau's approval.

July 15, 1996

Brent Mills, president of Nature Films, spoke and showed a video on "Sharks, Science, and Photography". The video was from a documentary filmed in Australia titled "Fox and Sharks". Two engineers participated in the video to determine how strong the Great White shark's bite is as well as how the shark hunts. A shark's bite can produce a pressure of greater than 1,000 pounds per square inch. The video contained some very good close up video of a 14 foot Great White Shark eating. The documentary, which took over a month to produce, also proved that sharks hunt at close range via vibration (from prey) rather that sight or smell. Brent said most shark attacks on humans are because of mistaken identity - spear fisherman with catch in tow appear to a shark as a large wounded fish. Also, some new medical discoveries in the cure for cancer are coming from the medical research using shark cartilage.

July 22, 1996

Richard Kelso, professor of mechanical engineering at UTK and partner in "Kelso-Regan Consult Engineers" spoke on "Mechanical Energy Conservation by Law and Practice". ASHRAE puts out a prescriptive standard for the design of new buildings used for human comfort. This standard is by consensus rather than government mandate. The standard is also updated every five years. Most states have adopted the latest standard. Tennessee has adopted a 1977 version but a survey of new buildings in Tennessee has shown that they are in line with the latest ASHRAE standard. The biggest areas of energy improvements have come in florescent lamp design (T8 & electronic ballast) and window design (coatings).

July 29, 1996

44 members visited the Shallowford Road Post Office complex. We viewed their use of high technology in sorting and delivering the mail. One and a half million pieces of mail are sorted daily at this site. Their newest machine is a multiple line optical character reader (OCR) and sorter, which was demonstrated. Each letter that passes through the OCR receives a bar code in florescent orange on its back side - this code uniquely identifies the letter for 30 days. The Shallowford complex has over 500 employees that work during the night. Visitors also learned how to read the postal bar codes that appear on the front of the letters.

August 5, 1996

Mr. Jack McKee, Chief Operating Officer of McKee Foods Corp. spoke on the history of O. D. McKee and McKee Bakery. Jack showed three videos: one on the history of the bakery, one on O D McKee's life, and one on the present day operation of the bakery. The bakery started at 3500 Dodds Ave during the depression era, 1930's. Today they are the number one supplier of snack cakes. Their biggest milestone occurred in the 60's when they pioneered the family pack of snack cakes. They employee over 4,000 in three plants: Collegedale, TN, Gentry, AK, and Stuarts Draft, VA. O. D. McKee's philosophy was "There is a better way - find it." On April 12, 1996 they opened their new "O.D. McKee Research Center", where they continue O.D. McKee's philosophy.

August 12, 1996

Mrs. Joyce Brinkmeyer, Director of Existing Industries, Chamber of Commerce, spoke on the "Founders of the Cleveland Industries". Beginning with audience participation, she covered the history of Bradley County's industrialization from the 1850 to the present. Much of the area's industrial history is associated with the Hardwick family which brought national fame to Cleveland in 1906 with their clothing industry. Three events around 1850 launched Cleveland into their industrial growth: 1. the completion of the railroad between Loudon, TN & Dalton, GA and the railroad between Cleveland and Chattanooga 2. Copper mine expansion in Polk County and 3. the completion of the copper road (cost $22,000 in 1853). An interesting fact was that M&M candies were produced for the military during WWII, and purple was one of the original colors.

August 19, 1996

Coach Buddy Green, UTC Athletic Dept., spoke about "UTC Football Program" and the new stadium. Buddy began coaching at UTC in Dec. 1993, and has been concentrating on improving the team's defense. Buddy said that the key to winning ball games this season will be the team's improvement in defense and winning the road games. The new stadium, presently under construction, will be a real boost to their athletic program. He also went over some of the NCAA rules that must be followed in recruiting new players.

August 26, 1996

Ms. Kathryn O. Wise, Director, Public Relations, Carpet-Rug Institute, Dalton. spoke about the development of carpet from the 4 century BC to the present. Dalton, GA, became a center for tufted bedspreads prior to becoming a leader in carpet manufacturing. Bedspreads were made at home, and sustained many of the north Georgia families during the depression. Today Dalton produces over 70% of the U.S.'s carpet (S.S. produces 44% of the world's carpet). Interesting fact: the total world output of carpet per year would circle the world (12 feet wide, at the equator) 9 times. In 1950, the introduction of machines and synthetic fibers ignited the production of carpet in the Dalton area. When shopping look for the new fiber "Olefin" and the new indoor air quality label.

September 9, 1996

Mr. Jim Frierson, Director of Strategic Initiatives at River Valley Partners, talked about the early days of the American Lava Corp. and its subsequent owners - 3M, General Electric, and Coors Ceramics. The American Lava company began in 1902 when Jim's granddad, Mr. Paul Kruesi, was approached by the Thurnours of Germany. They wanted to start plant in the United States to make burner tips for acetylene lamps. The tips were made from soapstone (mined in North Carolina), and were becoming popular in the newer and brighter acetylene lamps used for street lighting and automobile head lamps. At one time Fort Oglethorpe was the largest area lit by acetylene lamps in the world. The company later was sold to 3M in 1953, and to GE in 1983. Today it is owned by Coors Electronic Packaging Company.

September 16, 1996

Dr. Eric Schonblom gave a short course on "Design Optimization" using the Genichi Taguchi optimization technique called "robust design." This technique is an experimental test plan for solving a problem of several unknown variables when the functional relationships among the variables are unknown. Eric went through the solution of a three variable problem using a pendulum, a weight, pivot, center of gravity, and the frequency of oscillation. Thistechnique does not require any math higher than basic high school math to use.

September 23, 1996

Tom Needham, Allen and Hoshall, Inc., Memphis, TN and Darrell James, James & Associates, Nashville, TN spoke on professional engineering in Tennessee. Mr. Needham is president of the Consulting Engineers of Tennessee (CET) and Mr. James is president of the Tennessee Society of Professional Engineers (TSPE). Both groups are working to strengthen the engineering profession. A requirement of 12 hours per year of continuing educations is coming soon to continue your professional engineering status. It may be possible to receive 1/2 hour credit toward this requirement through a technical presentation at a club meeting. Mr. Needham spoke about the importance of fighting to control state and national legislation toward the engineering profession. Presently a certification of merit (second opinion) from a consulting engineer is required before a party may sue a consulting engineer.

September 30, 1996

Donnie Butler, a TVA Industrial Hygienist, spoke on the "Decommissioning of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal". TVA was requested by the DOD to provide technical assistance with the process of dismantling and disposal of residual nerve gases in the pipe lines and empty containers at the arsenal. The plant made mustard gas in the 1930's, and GB nerve gas during the post WWII years. In the late 1970 and 1980's the site was used for the disposal on this country's nerve gas arsenal. The plant is located within a 15 mile of Denver. The team's project was to test for any residual gas then dismantle the pipe line or container The team worked an amazing 800,000 hours over five years without a single accident. Their secret was the use of minicams - portable real time gas chromatography.

October 7, 1996

Sue Hyatt, Joyce Brennan, and Jerry Meyerson of Chattanooga State presented a program on "Distance Learning". Distance Learning is instruction where the teacher and student are not in the same physical area (class room). The oldest form of distance learning is the correspondence course. Chattanooga State is ranked in the top 20 colleges by the League of Communicators in the use of modern technology to perform distance learning. Currently Chattanooga State is offering live classrooms via American Online, and asynchronous learning via the Internet (Blackboard, News Groups) and Chattanooga Online. A new digital circuits course using a "Windows Breadboard" (S/W simulation of a circuit wiring breadboard) were demonstrated. The Digital Circuits course was developed in conjunction with monies from the Sloan Foundation. Niche courses like TVA's Forestay course for its dispersed employees and industrial maintenance courses were also discussed.

October 14, 1996

Darryl Powell, President and Founder of Chattanooga based Digital Phase Loudspeakers Company spoke on "Acoustic Loudspeakers and Sound Reproduction". His systems are based on a 1992 patented Acousta-Reed technology and the use of small drivers. This technology allows the speakers to reproduce low frequency transients better than other conventional speaker designs. Extreme quality control goes into each speaker system manufactured - components are hand matched and tweaked to each system. Digital Phase is Chattanooga's only company manufacturing top of the line hi-fi loud speakers, and they only sell direct to the customer.

October 21, 1996

Dr. James Ward, Guerry Professor of History, UTC spoke on the Packard Motor Car Company. The company begin in 1899 in Warren, OH. Jessie Vincent, took control of the company's engineering in 1912. Jessie ran the company's engineering as a small loosely organized group open to tinkering and innovation. Innovation flourished during Jessie's control . Packard establishing itself as a leader in large powerful engines, such as its "B12" engine in 1915 that was cheaper to manufacture than their "in line" six cylinder engines. In 1936 Packard hired a group of engineers from Pontiac Motors who brought cost accounting, inventory control, etc. to the company. This change modified the attitude of engineering and ended the period of innovation. Packard fell behind in technology, and went out of business in 1956. The moral to the story is that smaller more loosely organized companies have given us our most technological innovations.

October 28, 1996

Gordon Mellencamp, Chattanooga/Hamilton County Planning Commission, spoke on the "The Chattanooga Futurescape '96 Project". The survey had a response of over 2500. A number of slides form the survey were shown along with the rating given each. The survey proved that the population in and around Chattanooga love the beauty associated with our vegetation. The survey also proved that the population is very conservative in their scoring of the slides in the project - the highest ranked picture was of the Tennessee River between Racoon Mtn. and Signal Mtn.

November 4, 1996

Shara Shoup, PH.D., of the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (Chambers Williams' daughter-in-law and Hixson High School graduate) spoke on "Practical High Temperature (77 degrees Kelvin) Superconductors - Are they "Hopping" into Our Future. Superconductivity (no resistance) was discovered in 1911 using mercury and liquid helium at 3 degrees Kelvin. In 1986-87 scientist discovered how to get superconductivity at temperatures where liquid nitrogen could be used as the coolant, 77 degrees Kelvin. Shara showed a video and slides covering some of the work in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL). ORNL is working on a methods to put superconductors into practical use. The process being studied is named RABITS (Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate). RABITS starts with a rolled Ni ribbon (which aligns the crystal lattice) upon which a buffer layer is grown, then a superconductor layer is grown. Their best conductor is capable of carrying 710,000 amps/sq! cm.

November 11, 1996

Jack Flack, Chief Project Manager at TVA spoke on "Documentation Management in the Electronic Age". Jack is project manager over a $20 million dollar project to automate all of TVA's documents. Research has shown that 80-95% of an enterprise's information is located its documents, and that 25% of those documents cannot be retrieved. TVA plans to have two electronic vaults, one in Chattanooga and the other in Knoxville, that will store over a tetra-byte of data each. Jack estimates 25-30 cents per page is the cost to scan and input a document into electronic storage. After storing the document it can be made available to anyone that needs it - even over the Internet. Security and encryption are also prime issues with electronic document storage.

November 18, 1996

John Swingle of BellSouth spoke on "Your spoken thoughts are a clear as glass" - The role of fiber optics in your future, an update. The newest technology, OC192, has fiber optic communications transmitting at 10 gigabytes/sec or 129,024 simultaneous channels open for voice. This compares with 1.5 mega bytes/sec and 24 voice channels running over conventional copper cable. John said "the Internet is the trigger" and "the Internet is fueling this need for high capacity transmission". BellSouth also demonstrated the newest field technology for splicing fiber.

November 25, 1996

David Wheeler, Project Manager for Lockwood Greene Consultants on Austin, Texas' new Samsung semi-conductor memory (64K DRAM) plant, spoke on "Sustainable Industry and Microelectronics". The plant site covers 180 acres, and will have an annual payroll over $45 million. These new semiconductor manufacturing plants are built around the "clean rooms "(where the 8" silicon wafers are etched) being the heart of the manufacturing process. The clean rooms are ten thousand time cleaner than a hospital operating room, and are held to strict temperature and vibration standards. Extreme importance is also placed on the plant being environmentally friendly. David reviewed some of the $67 million incentives that Austin offered Samsung to locate in their area. He also said that Chattanooga would be an ideal site for such a plant. [contact Greg Sedrick if you would like slides of David Wheeler's presentation]

December 2, 1996

Ted DeMoss, President of the Christian Business Men's Committee spoke on "The Real Bottom Line of Life". Ted noted that mid-life crises can strike you at any age (his occurred in his mid twenties). Ted related his life's story and how he searched for what God really wanted him to do with his life. Ted began his professional life by obtaining a degree in management engineering form Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New Your. He began work making "Arrow" dress shirts and quickly rose to plant manager. But he soon was questioning whether this was what he wanted to spend the rest of his life doing. Later he began selling life, accident and health insurance and was quite successful with over 19 offices under his supervision. for the last 14 years, Ted has been the President of Christian Business Men's Committee of USA (CBMC of USA) and travels the world spreading Christian Business leaders. A key quote of Ted's is "Christianity is a relationship".

December 9, 1996

Spouses Day - Barber Shop Quartet sang